Terms of Reference
Team Leader – Participatory Analysis and Co-design of Adapted Milk Matters interventions
Background: The Nawiri Project in Isiolo and Marsabit
USAID Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance (BHA) is funding a 5-year Development Food Security Activity (DFSA) project that is being implemented in the arid and semi-arid land (ASAL) counties of Isiolo and Marsabit in Kenya. The project, Nutrition in ASALs Within Integrated Resilient Institutions (Nawiri) is led by Catholic Relief Services (CRS), an international humanitarian agency of the Catholic community in the United States of America in a consortium with Concern Worldwide, Village Enterprise, Tufts University, GAIN, IBTCI, The Manoff Group, Caritas Isiolo and Marsabit, to implement the Nawiri Project in Isiolo and Marsabit counties. The project’s goal is to sustainably reduce levels of acute malnutrition among vulnerable populations in Isiolo and Marsabit counties. The project is implemented using a phased approach, a research phase (2019-2021) that will inform program design and implementation phase (2021-2024). One of the key activities during the research phase is the identification of community-defined interventions using Adapted Milk Matters Approach for increased dry-season milk availability and access in Marsabit and Isiolo Counties. As part of the design process, CRS Nawiri would like to conduct an Initial participatory analysis and co-design of the intervention options for increasing dry-season milk availability and access. Additionally, part of the analysis will include consideration of the costs of the locally identified intervention options with a view to selecting interventions that in the long-term can be locally managed and affordable. Nawiri implementation involves collaboration and consultation with Isiolo and Marsabit county governments to infuse co-creation, ensure co-learning and co-design of the project interventions to ensure sustainability.
Purpose/Justification of the assignment
A critical stage of the Milk Matters approach is participatory analysis of acute malnutrition and local identification of one or more interventions that target peaks in acute malnutrition during the main dry season. Part of this analysis includes consideration of costs of the intervention(s), with a view to selecting and testing interventions that in the long-term, can be locally managed and which are affordable.
The aim of this study is therefore, to identify appropriate, context specific community-defined interventions that will increase milk production, directly or indirectly, over one calendar year, particularly during dry seasons. Given the long-term changes in livestock ownership, the study will focus on both livestock and non-livestock interventions according to local preferences and local analysis of relevance, feasibility and sustainability. Identified and prioritized intervention will form a basis for co-design of interventions that will be integrated into CRS Nawiri’s phase 2 activities to improve availability and access of livestock milk and the health of children and PLW in Marsabit and Isiolo counties. Participatory methodology proposed in the Milk matters emphasizes community voice and participation in the analysis of the causes of acute malnutrition especially due to decline of milk during dry period and the identification of context fitting interventions or activities to address these causes, thus aligning with the locally owned, County led, and co-design approach being promoted by Nawiri.
This activity will involve an in-depth field study in Isiolo and Marsabit Counties using a participatory analysis to better understand why the availability and accessibility of animal milk decline during the dry season from a community perspective. This will include a series of county and comprehensive
community consultations in selected sites within the two counties. These consultations will be framed around a set of participatory methodologies to generate datasets from ranks, scores or proportions that can be analyzed statistically. In Isiolo county, the study will be conducted in four sites namely Sericho Ward in Garbatula Sub-County, Cherab and Chari ward in Merti sub-county, and Oldonyiro Ward in Isiolo Central Sub- County whereas in Marsabit County, study sites selected include Illeret, Dukana, Maikona and North Horr wards in North Horr sub county covering Gabbra communities (camel pastoralism) and Dassenech communities (pastoralism and fishing).
The Milk Matters (MM) approach was developed by the Feinstein International Centre at Tufts University and Save the Children. It aims to boost milk production in animals that stay close to women and children during dry seasons, when males migrate in search of pasture with larger herds. Milk Matters is an action research project trialed in pastoralist areas of Ethiopia, that showed how targeted livestock support during the dry season and droughts can protect children from acute malnutrition. The first stage of the approach involves participatory analysis with pastoralist women while also ensuring adequate involvement of men to better understand why the availability and accessibility of animal milk declines during the dry season, by livestock species, local contexts and livestock management practices by local communities. Based on this analysis, women then identify, propose, and prioritize types of livestock support that they view as appropriate and that they could manage considering potential additional workload, including milking animals and feeding children (second stage). Additionally, part of the analysis includes consideration of the costs of the intervention(s), with a view to selecting and testing interventions that in the long-term can be locally managed and affordable.
Specific Research Questions /Objectives
The purpose of this Adapted Milk Matters study is to identify community-defined intervention options for increasing dry season milk availability and accessibility for the target communities select and co- design interventions for Phase 2 that in the long-term, can be locally managed and which are affordable and scalable.
The specific objectives of the study include to:
- Identify appropriate local interventions for increasing milk production, directly or indirectly, over one calendar year, particularly during dry seasons.
- Based on the analysis on availability and access of milk, and proposed type(s) of livestock and non-livestock support, co-design appropriate intervention(s) framework with local communities particularly women for Phase II.
To aid in achieving the above objectives, the study will seek to answer the following key question
- What is the effect of seasonality on livestock milk production?
- What are the local community participants suggestions on livestock and non-livestock interventions that directly or indirectly increase availability and access to livestock milk, particularly during the dry season?
- How will the interventions lead to reduced workload among mothers and subsequently improved childcare practices?
- What types of interventions do local communities feel Nawiri could support that will increase milk production and access in the context of Isiolo county and North horr subcounty in Marsabit county?
- How will the local communities sustain selected interventions for increasing milk production and access considering affordability, scalability, and sustainability?
The study will include the following stages:
- Review all relevant Nawiri project documents
- Participate in calls with Nawiri team to refine the draft workplan
- Design study qualitative data sampling criteria and data collection methodology and tools and share for review.
- Recruitment of a team of field researchers fluent in the local languages of the study area
- Training of the field team, this with support from Tufts University
- Conduct county workshops with various key stakeholders including the county governments, to prioritize and map out study sites and target groups for the data collection
- Conduct initial participatory analysis mainly with pastoralist women to:
- Better understand why the availability and accessibility of animal milk declines during the dry season, by livestock species, local contexts and livestock management practices by local communities.
- Identify and prioritize types of of potential interventions to prevent AM, with emphasis on seasonality and dry season peaks in AM considering costs and additional workload to women, including milking animals and feeding children (second stage)
- Based on the analysis on availability and access of milk, and proposed type(s) of livestock and non-livestock support, co-design appropriate intervention(s) framework with local communities particularly women
- Compile field assessment findings and designed intervention(s) framework for review
- Final write up
Consultant Roles and Responsibilities
Tufts researchers will work closely with the consultant on the study design, data collection and design of the study
More specifically, the consultant will:
- Support the training of the field research teams
- Work with the Nawiri research team to develop an assessment plan, identify a sampling frame and sample and design IPA tools for the field assessment
- Manage the quality and consistency of field level data collection activities and ensure that the participatory tools are being applied in a systematic way, and according to the agreed upon sampling frame and assessment plan
- Facilitate county consultations and Initial participatory analysis with local communities and co- design of the intervention
- Draft final study report
- Present the study findings and designed interventions framework of study to Nawiri, County Government officials and PREG partners among others
Duration of the assignment
This will be a full-time consultancy position for a period of 42 days starting on July 1st, 2021. During this timeframe the position will require extensive periods of field research, and the successful candidate will be expected to spend up to 30 days continuously in Isiolo and Marsabit prior to and during the field assessments. The consultant will be selected based on proven experience and qualifications
Ownership and Beneficiaries of the reports
Any reports or other materials prepared by the consultant for Nawiri under this Agreement shall belong to and remain the property of the Nawiri. The consultant shall not use such property for any other purpose unless prior express consent is given by Catholic Relief Services (CRS).
The primary deliverable will be the completion of the IPA and co-design of the community defined livestock interventions in the two counties, specific deliverables will be as follows:
- Sampling and assessment plan
- Prioritised community-defined livestock interventions to increase milk availability and accessibility during dry season
- Design framework of the top 3 prioritized community-defined interventions within the context of Marsabit and Isiolo
- PowerPoint presentation on the study findings
- Summary (2-page max) learning brief
- Full study report
The Consultant will work under the overall guidance of the Nawiri research and design lead
The consultancy fees will be indicated in the contract and will be based on the candidate’s qualifications and experience. This will be based on CRS and USAID policies. All other allowable costs associated with the study will be covered by Nawiri.
PhD degree in livestock production or related discipline with at least 10 years of experience in conducting research using qualitative methods
Work Experience: A minimum of 15 years progressively responsible and relevant experience in a development or humanitarian context
Skills and Expertise: The candidate should have:
- General knowledge and experience of pastoralist livelihoods and systems in ASAL in East African region
- Demonstrated experience with participatory assessments or research such as Participatory Rural Appraisal, Household Economy Analysis, or Participatory Impact Assessment (PIA) will be an essential
- Relevant research/work experience in Isiolo and Marsabit counties or neighbouring communities will be an advantage
- Demonstrated experience and expertise in research field team management and supervision, and qualitative data
- Familiarity with and/ or professional experience in Kenya’s ASALs
- Ability and willingness to travel within Kenya and spend periods of time in the ASALs
- Experience in community mobilization and participation
- Fluency in English and Kiswahili
- Knowledge of Gabra Borana Afan Oromo, Rendille, Samburu or other local languages spoken in Isiolo and Marasabit will be an asset – Preference will be given to candidates from Isiolo or Marsabit counties or neighbouring communities
How to Apply:
Send your applications to Crskenyaemail@example.com by COB 10th JUNE 2021. Subject: KE2717-Consultancy participatory adapted Milk Matters Study NAWIRI
Shortlisted candidates may be asked to participate in a face to face or online interview